Healthy And Productive Paid work for Youth with disabilities (HAPPY)
HAPPY is the latest project from the TRAIL lab, focused on enhancing inclusive employment for youth with disabilities. Dr. Sally Lindsay, senior scientist at Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital (Holland Bloorview) is leading the team in developing evidence-informed, gender-responsive solutions on disability disclosure and workplace accommodations.
This five-year project brings together an interdisciplinary team of researchers, employers, clinicians and youth with disabilities to develop, implement and evaluate evidence-informed and gender-responsive solutions to enhance healthy and inclusive labour force participation of youth with disabilities.
Funding for this project is provided by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC) and Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) Partnership Grant. Matched funding is provided by the Kimel Family Opportunities Fund through the Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital Foundation.
Why focus on disability disclosure and workplace accommodations?
Little is known about the experiences of disability disclosure and workplace accommodations among young people with disabilities who attempt to enter and remain in the workforce. Understanding how disclosure and accommodations are facilitated in the workplace is critical to creating more inclusive and productive workplaces:
- Self-disclosure of a disability is a prerequisite of receiving accommodations.1,2,3, However, many young people with disabilities are often poorly prepared to disclose their condition and to advocate for accommodations.4, 2
- Accommodations can extend working life and enhance physical and psychological health and can often be provided at little or no cost 5,6
- Workplace accommodations are supported by human rights and accessibility legislation 7 and place a duty on employers to provide reasonable accommodations 8
- Although accommodations have the potential to improve work participation they are under-utilized with less than 1 in 5 people with a disability receiving accommodations.9,10
- Despite the high prevalence of working-age Canadians with a disability, less than 30% of companies have disability-specific policies and only 18% of companies offer disability training programs.11
This project aims to identify effective disclosure strategies and workplace accommodation processes, to improve quality of life and job performance for youth with disabilities.
- The project team is developing toolkits and simulations for youth, clinicians, and employers, to support conversations around disability disclosure and to facilitate accommodation processes.
- Toolkits are being co-created with participants from each of these groups, to ensure that they are reflective of the lived realities of youth with disabilities, and are tailored to the organizational contexts in which employers and clinicians work.
- Simulations will also be co-created with these groups, and will demonstrate effective ways to have conversations around disability disclosure and workplace accommodations.
In addition, a gender lens will be applied in developing these tools in order to address gender-related barriers and facilitators to inclusive employment.
Thank you to our funders
Matched funding provided by the Kimel Family Opportunities Fund through the Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital Foundation.
Thank you to our partners
- To explore how young men and women with disabilities disclose their condition and ask for accommodation
- To understand how employers provide accommodations and/or need help with providing accommodations to youth with disabilities
- To understand how gender influences how youth with disabilities ask for workplace accommodations and how employers provide accommodations
In the first phase of our project, we undertook a systematic review of workplace disability disclosure and requests for accommodations among youth with disabilities. The goal of this review was to explore the barriers and facilitators to disability disclosure and workplace accommodation requests for youth with disabilities. We also explored how and when youth disclose their condition when seeking or maintaining employment.
In this phase we also talked to youth with disabilities and employers who hire youth with disabilities to understand their perspectives around disability disclosure, inclusion, and workplace accommodations.
Through these interviews, we explored how young people with disabilities disclose their condition and ask for workplace accommodations, how employers provide accommodation and create an inclusive environment, and the concept of disability confidence, which refers to the knowledge and understanding of how to work effectively with, and include people with disabilities.
- Develop evidence on disability disclosure and workplace accommodations
- Implement and evaluate evidence-informed, gender-responsive solutions
- Build capacity for measuring and demonstrating broader health and socio-economic impacts of these interventions
- Expand evidence base and research capacity on the integration of sex and gender-based analysis with respect to healthy and productive work
- Enhance inter-disciplinary partnerships through research alliance
In this current phase, we are engaging in knowledge translation activities to share findings from phase one. We are also working with clinicians, employers, researchers, youth with disabilities, and other stakeholders to develop toolkits including simulations to enhance inclusive employment for youth with disabilities.
Where are we now?
We are currently in the second phase of our five-year project.
Dr. Sally Lindsay
Dr. Angela Colantonio
Dr. Jennifer Stinson
Dr. Sandra Moll
Dr. Joanne Leck
Dr. Brent Lyons
Dr. Winny Shen
Dr. Nicole Thomson
Dr. Mahadeo Sukhai
Project Management Staff
Hiba Ahmed, Research Assistant
Kavitha Thiyagarajah, Research Coordinator
Postdoctoral Fellows and Students
Dr. Azar Varahra, Postdoctoral Fellow
Vanessa Tomas, PhD student
Abby Vijaykumar, MSc student
Sara Hanafy, PhD student
Paniccia A, Colquohoun H, Kirsh B, Lindsay S. (2019) Youth and young adults with acquired brain injury transition towards work-related roles: A qualitative study. Disability & Rehabilitation 41(11):1331-1342. (April)
Lindsay S, Cagliostro E, Leck J, Shen W, Stinson J. (2019) Employers’ perspectives of including young people with disabilities in the workforce, disability disclosure and providing accommodations. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation 50(2):141-156. (Feb).
Lindsay S, Cagliostro E, Albarico M, Mortaji N, Srikathan D.(2019) Gender matters in the transition to employment for young adults with physical disabilities. Disability & Rehabilitation 41(3):319-332. (Feb)
- Lindsay S, Cagliostro E, et al. (2018) A systematic review of the benefits of hiring people with disabilities. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation 28(4):634-655. (Dec).
- Lindsay S, Cagliostro E, Carafa G. (2018) A systematic review of workplace disclosure and requests for accommodations among youth with disabilities. Disability & Rehabilitation 40(25):2971-2986. (Dec).
Lindsay S, Cagliostro E, Albarico M, Srikathan D, Mortaji N. (2018) Systematic review of the role of gender in finding and maintaining employment among youth and young adults with disabilities. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation 28(2):232-251. (June)
Lindsay S, Cagliostro E, Carafa G. (2018) A systematic review of barriers and facilitators of disability disclosure in post-secondary education among youth with disabilities. International Journal of Disability Development & Education, 65(5):526-556. (Feb).
- Employers’ Perspectives of Including Young People with Disabilities in the Workforce, Disability Disclosure, and Providing Accommodations
- Disability Disclosure and Workplace Accommodations among Youth with Disabilities
- Gender Matters in the Transition to Employment for Young Adults with Physical Disabilities
- A Systematic Review of the Role of Gender in Securing and Maintaining Employment Among Youth and Young Adults with Disabilities
1. Lindsay S. Discrimination and other barriers to employment for teens and young adults with disabilities. Disabil Rehabil. 2011;33:1340–1350.
2. Bruyere S, Ericson W, Van Looys J. Comparative study of workplace policy and practices contributing to disability non-discrimination. Rehabil Psychol. 2004;49:28–38.
3. Munir F, Leka S, Griffiths A. Dealing with self-management of chronic illness at work: predictors for self-disclosure. Soc Sci Med. 2005;60:1397–1407.
4. Brown K, Hamner D, Foley S, et al. Doing disability: disability formations in the search for work. Sociol Inquiry. 2009;79:3–24.
5. Brohan E, Henderson C, Wheat K, et al. Systematic review of beliefs, behaviours and influencing factors associated with disclosure of a mental health problem in the workplace. BMC Psychiatry. 2012;12:1–14.
6. Dong S, Oire S, MacDonald-Wilson K, et al. A comparison of perceptions of factors in the job accommodation process among employees with disabilities, employers and service providers. Rehabil Counsel Bull. 2012;56:182–189.
7. Sanford J, Milchus K. Evidence-based practice in workplace accommodations. Work. 2003;27:329–332.
8. Davis L. Disabilities in the workplace: recruitment, accommodation, and retention. AAOHN J. 2005;53:306–312.
9. Bruyere SM, Erickson WA, VanLooy S. Comparative study of workplace policy and practices contributing to disability nondiscrimination. Rehabil Psychol. 2004;49:28.
10. Leeuwen MT, Blyth FM, March LM, et al. Chronic pain and reduced work effectiveness: the hidden cost to Australian employers. Eur J Pain. 2006;10:161.
11. Moon N, Baker P. Assessing stakeholder perceptions of workplace accommodation barriers: results from a policy research instrument. J Disabil Policy Stud. 2012;23:94–109.
Our inclusive employment webinar series launched in April 2019.
See a list of the upcoming and past webinars:
Building a disability disclosure simulation as an educational tool for employers.
|Dr. Sally Lindsay||June 23, 2020|
Understanding & Evaluating Services to Youth with Developmental Disability.
|Dr. Michael Wolf-Branigin, M.S.W., Ph.D., PStat®, Professor of Social Work at George Mason University||April 22, 2020|
|Job characteristics and job retention of young workers with disabilities.||Dr. Carrie Shandra, Associate Professor, Sociology, Stony Brook University||March 31, 2020|
What are the training needs of managers that wish to hire employees with disabilities?
|Valérie Martin, M. Sc, Ph. D. Candidate, University of Montreal||March 10, 2020|
|How do we measure inclusion at the workplace? A systematic review using the COSMIN methodology.||Dr. Mana Rezai, DC MHSc, Post-Doctoral Fellow, TRAIL Lab||January 29, 2020|
|Disability disclosure research.||Dr. Brent Lyons, Assistant Professor; York Research Chair in Stigmatization and Social Identity||December 5, 2019|
|CNIB Employment data.||Dr. Mahadeo Sukhai, Head of Research and Chief Accessibility Officer at the CNIB||November 20, 2019|
|Gender sensitive review.||Dr. Sally Lindsay, Dr. Mana Rezai, Dr. Kendall Kolne||October 3, 2019|
|Disclosing disability and asking for accommodations: A lived experience perspective.||Emily Chan, Zak Priest, Polina Kosareva||August 22, 2019|
|Addressing the employment goals of young adults with psychiatric disabilities.||Dr. Elizabeth Thomas, Research Assistant Professor, Social and Behavioural Sciences, Temple University||July 9, 2019|
|Action Potential: The future of work and disability||Jamie Burton, VP of Dolphin Digital Technologies Inc.||June 12, 2019|
|Gender and employment among youth with disabilities.||Dr. Sally Lindsay, Elaine Cagliostro||May 22, 2019|
|Inclusion, disability disclosure and accommodations: Employers' perspectives.||Dr. Sally Lindsay, Elaine Cagliostro||April 25, 2019|
|Workplace disability disclosure and accommodations for youth with disabilities.||Dr. Sally Lindsay, Elaine Cagliostro||April 16, 2019|
If you are interested in participating or co-hosting a webinar with us, please contact us.
- Are you a researcher interested in collaborating with your peers? Join REINVENT, our Research Alliance for Inclusive Youth Employment.
- Want to join the TRAIL Lab as a student? Click here to find out about current opportunities.
- Interested in participating in our research? See below for all HAPPY studies we are currently recruiting for: